Technology Coordinators, LLC

Technology Coordinators, LLC (TC) was founded in 1999 by Ed Schaffer who had been serving as an advocate for the public sector since 1987 establishing a reputation of serving the best interests of schools and their communities.  Under his leadership, TC helped develop “Time of Use” rate plans for schools served by Arizona Public Service and UniSource Energy Services companies.  As its core advocacy offering, TC conducted extensive electric, gas, water, sewer, refuse and master meter pipeline safety surveys for school Excess Utility Reports, which were utilized for ARS §15‑910.03 and Arizona Corporation Commission regulatory compliance.

Today, TC is led by Rick Romain who originally joined the team in 2009 due to his unparalleled experience in the Arizona solar industry.  That experience originated in 1982 when he founded So‑Luminaire Electronics, Incorporated (SEI) which developed and manufactured advanced technology energy generation, utilization, conversion and management products.  Covered by several U.S. patents, SEI’s products were delivered to alternative energy markets for commercial, schools, government and residential consumers.  Experienced with all energy investment stakeholder concerns representing developer, owner and customer, TC advocacy identifies opportunities to bring these interests together in a symbiotic relationship to deliver superior results for schools in Arizona.  Most recently, TC is leading efforts to rescue existing, under-performing projects with the same philosophy.  Subsequently, TC reports and analysis are becoming recognized standards for the industry.

As a result of TC advocacy in whole or in part:

  • 3rd Party Solar Service Agreement (SSA) “Power Purchase” Economic Shortfall Mitigation
    • Casa Grande Union High School District
      • Identified a significant shortfall of economic performance with their 3rd Party Solar Service Agreement (SSA)
      • Successfully obtained a settlement from their SSA provider, Constellation Solar Arizona LLC
        • Constellation Solar agreed to rebate $250,000 for the approximately 5 years of solar power transactions per the SSA to date;
        • Continue $50,000 annual rebates while the SSA remains in effect, which has a 20 year term
    • City of Sedona
      • Identified a significant shortfall with their 3rd Party Solar Service Agreement (SSA)
      • Successfully obtained a settlement from their SSA provider, Sun Edison Government Solutions
        • Sun Edison Government Solutions paid $375,000 to settle a suit filed by the City of Sedona
  • Solar Project Development & Oversight
    •  Lake Havasu Unified School District
      • Project objectives
        • Revenue neutral (self-funding) district owned grid-tied solar photovoltaic co-generation plants
        • Reduce electrical expenditures
        • Facilitate a more stable energy budget
        • Facilitate solar photovoltaic educational opportunities
        • Localize the economic benefits of the project construction and operations
      • Services provided
        • Design and oversight of legal, finance, construction, commission and operation of solar plants
      • Results to date
        • Exceeding economic performance expectations while fulfilling the objectives since 2013

Technology Coordinators commitment to personalized unparalleled energy investment and technology advocacy is indeed second to none.  Give us a call today to see how we can help you with your success!

Solar Electric Economic Performance Audits and Analysis

Arizona Association of School Business Officials Conference Presentation

Self Funding Energy Project Success

Arizona Association of School Business Officials Conference Presentation

Solar Electric Routine Economic Performance Evaluation

LHUSD Solar Four Year School Board Update

Solar Electric Post Commissioning Performance Evaluation

LHUSD 6 Month Post Commissioning School Board Update

An Inherently Superior Paradigm Shift for Renewable Energy

High School AP Capstone Research Project by Kaley Romain



In the United States, the first electric car, an 1890 six passenger electrified wagon with a top speed of 14 miles per hour, sparked an interest in electric vehicles. That interest led to electric cars representing ⅓ of all vehicles on the road by 1900 with continued strong sales over the next 10 years. With the enthusiasm experienced over 100 years ago, one would anticipate an overwhelming presence of electric vehicles (EVs) in modern society. To the contrary, electric vehicle presence in the market has declined to virtual obscurity.


To explain the limited propagation of these functionally and objectively related technologies, EV (representing power consumption) and PV (representing power generation) with batteries (representing power storage) being the factor that connects them, we must evaluate their historical and current deployment paradigms while exploring the potential for new or alternate approaches that would create cumulative propagation improvements.


In consideration of the exponential year-over-year growth, aggressive promotion, investment incentives, competitive energy disincentives and dire environmental messaging to date the question would be, regardless of the justification for their pursuits, is a 10% market share for EVs and a 0.46% market share for PV generation indicative of a policy that has or will achieve a compelling saturation of these technologies in the U.S.?



The catalyst that triggered PV’s transition from a scientific curiosity to useful functionality worthy of production was its ability to generate electrical power where it is difficult at best to acquire. Space, the impetus of the symbiotic marriage of EV in the form of satellites and PV solar electricity, is not the defining scope for this inherently superior context. As the economics of PV improved, driven by its production for space operations, opportunities on Earth took root with powering remotely located, electrically powered functions.



While this research did not seek to quantify how much of the 130 billion kilowatt-hours produced by PV generation plants in 2020 was converted to AC power and inevitably converted back to DC power to charge batteries, it does seek to quantify the reduction in efficiency caused by the additional conversion. The initial hypothesis is reducing electrical conversions required to charge batteries will reduce power losses and create an opportunity to improve the economics of the process.


Referring to the block diagram below (Fig. 1), the components utilized are as follows:

1. System 1 - PV 0-70VDC to Battery 12VDC Charging System

  • Solar DC Source – (2) Grape Solar Model CS-S-180-DJ 180 Watt Modules
  • DC Charge Controller – Victron Energy SmartSolar MPPT 150/35
    • Efficiency specification: Maximum 98%

2. System 2 – Battery 23-25VDC to 120VAC to Battery 12VDC Charging System

  • Battery DC Source – (2) Concorde AGM Battery Model PVX-2120 12VDC
  • DC to AC Inverter – Victron Energy Phoenix Model 24/250 Inverter
    • Efficiency specification: Maximum 88%
  • AC to DC Charger – Victron Energy Blue Smart Model 12V Charger
    • Efficiency specification: 94%

3. Destination Battery Storage

a. Battery DC Destination – (1) Concorde AGM Battery Model PVX-2120 12VDC

Test Configuration Diagram


According to the original equipment manufacturer’s specification for the devices used, with the exception of the circuit related losses that are reasonably balanced for both test configurations, System 1 should expect a maximum of ~98% efficiency (minimum ~2% loss) and System 2 should expect a maximum of ~83% efficiency (minimum ~17% loss {94% of the power from the inverter derived from 88% of the power from the ~24VDC series batteries}).



With the percentage of power loss charted on the left Y axis, the input power charted on the right Y axis over the passage of time in the X axis, the following conclusions can be made for the “high power mode” (Fig. 2) and “low power mode” (Fig. 3) respectively:’

In high power mode

System 1

  • input power between 265-270 watts (dark green line by right Y axis)
  • conversion loss percentage 8-10% (light green line by left Y axis)

System 2

  • input power between 305-315 watts (dark blue line by right Y axis)
  • conversion loss percentage 38-41% (light blue line by left Y axis)


  • System 2 incurred a minimum of 28% to a maximum of 33% additional loss of performance as a result of the extra conversion process (red line by left Y axis)

High Power Mode
Fig. 2. 9am – 10:36:24pm power loss and input power in “high power” mode.

In low power mode

System 1

  • input power between 140-145 watts (dark green line by right Y axis)
  • conversion loss percentage 8-10% (light green line by left Y axis)

System 2

  • input power between 65-70 watts (dark blue line by right Y axis)
  • conversion loss percentage 28-31% (light blue line by left Y axis)


  • System 2 incurred a minimum of 18% to a maximum of 23% additional loss of performance as a result of the extra conversion process (red line by left Y axis)

Low Power Mode
Fig. 3. 4pm – 12:36:44pm power loss and input power in “low power” mode.

System 1 from Zero to Maximum Power

Finally, System 1 was operated independently to observe its efficiency from zero to maximum power input as represented by the March 24th, 2022 charts below (Fig. 4-7 Quarters):

Sunrise Through 10:32:58 AM

Sunrise to10:32:58 AM

10:32:58 AM Through Solar Noon

10:32:58 AM to Solar Noon

Solar Noon Through 2:32:58 PM

Solar Noon to 2:32:58 PM

2:32:58 PM Through Sunset

2:32:58 PM to Sunset


The results provided demonstrate the designed for purpose performance of the solar charge controller, which confines its power efficiency losses between ~8-13% throughout its broad nominal operating range.


Inherently superior applies to any context, which includes the user. In this context, the paradigm shift is directed toward adapting technology to its users rather than forcing the reverse.


As previously stated, conclusions of this exercise are intended to promote renewable energy technology propagation through unique or unleveraged opportunities that may be lost in the forest of the environmental and public policy promotions of the last two decades. By discovering, developing, and delivering unique inherently superior opportunities atypical of the industry that produce an increase in usability, performance, desirable economic outcome, and other advantages, the market share of the same would likely experience a significant increase since pursuing the same would not discourage those who are already committed to the benefits, namely environmental, currently promoted in the U.S. and abroad.


[1] S. Denby, T. Purdy, A. Williard, J. Sherrington, G. Haerther, and S. Buckmaster, “The Electric Vehicle Charging Problem,” Youtube, 09-Feb-2021. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[2] “Electricity in the U.S. – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA),” Independent Statistics and Analysis – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[3] “Photovoltaics and electricity – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA),” Independent Statistics and Analysis – U.S. Energy Information Administration. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[4] “Electric vehicles and hybrids surpass 10% of U.S. light-duty vehicle sales,” Independent Statistics and Analysis – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[5] Iea, “Policies to promote electric vehicle deployment – Global EV Outlook 2021 – Analysis,” IEA, 2021. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[6] S. Gouchoe, V. Everette, and R. Haynes, “Case studies on the effectiveness of state financial incentives for Renewable Energy,” Subcontractor Report, Sep. 2002.
[7] F. Mormann, “Clean Energy Equity,” May 2019. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[8] S. Caldwell, “3.0 power,” NASA. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].
[9] J. N. DiStefano, “Inside Amazon’s largest warehouse – where you’ll find more robots than people,”, 19-Oct-2021. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 29-Apr-2022].

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Economic Performance vs Acceptance & Adoption

Eighth Grade Research Challenge by Kaley Romain


There are countless calls to action to mitigate climate change caused by human activities, but supporters of those calls must acknowledge any action that requires significant sacrifice must be justified and will be subjected to a level of scrutiny commensurate to the sacrifice.


While everyone retains the right to their opinion about PV solar electricity and may pursue its use how they see fit within the rule of law for their private domain, the public domain requires a level of consensus.


While the preceding examples demonstrate a reduction of the overall increases of cost for their PV solar electricity, it is unlikely skepticism about the technology or confidence in the administrations of these entities has experienced the same degree of improvement.


Because PV solar generated power is not available twenty-four hours per day, accounts utilizing PV electricity as an alternative must rely on firm power available from their local utility when the solar system cannot provide all the needed energy at any given moment.


Overvaluation of PV electricity rose out of an inappropriate methodology and evaluation of the same.


Annual PV electricity escalators have been promoted by solar developers and providers. Conceptually, escalators are intended to represent local utility rate inflation. When promoting a PV solar electricity contract, a vendor will sometimes request an annual PV kilowatt hour cost escalator be included in order to entice investors to finance the project.


Lastly, Arizona Corporation Commission law, rules and regulations create circumstances that require accounts to sell unused PV kilowatt hours back to their local utilities at slightly below wholesale rates, which are one sixth to one third the amounts paid to purchase the power from the PV solar provider.


Fortunately, these pitfalls are easily avoided with proper due diligence by qualified individuals, which ideally are directly and only responsible to the public entity.


Earnest attention to detail will reveal the fitness for consideration of any public domain PV solar project.


“Casa Grande Solar Agenda.” BoardDocs® PL, 3 Apr. 2018, sourced from:$file/Settlement%20Agreement-Constellation.pdf.

Davenport, Debra K. “Gila Bend USD Solar Report.” AZ Auditor General, Aug. 2011, sourced from:

“City, firm settle $375K lawsuit” Sedona Red Rock News, 1 Mar. 2019 sourced from:

“School District Alert – Solar Power Contracts.” AZ Auditor General, July 2012, sourced from:

Smathers, Heather. “CGUHSD to Get $250K Rebate on Solar Panels.”, 18 May 2018, sourced from:

“U.S. Energy Information Administration – EIA – Independent Statistics and Analysis”, 5 Mar. 2019, sourced from:

Nikola Tesla - The Battle of the Currents

Fifth Grade School Presentation

Sinagua Middle School, Flagstaff

Solar Photovoltaic Project Development Advocacy

District Advocacy Request

Flagstaff Unified School District (FUSD) retained Technology Coordinators, LLC (TC) to identify recommendations, goals, objectives and key points of consideration based on an analysis of implementing a photovoltaic grid-tied solar (PV) system at the Sinagua Middle School in the jurisdiction of Flagstaff, Arizona for the purposes of developing an appropriate procurement instrument to solicit responses from interested parties to implement the same. Additionally, the guidance provided may be used to evaluate those responses.

Site Survey Imagery

Expand this section to review site imagery.

Imagery Tool Instructions

This is an interactive map of the area in which you can pan and zoom to positions of interest. Clicking will switch to an interactive panorama with view extents as indicated by the number of degrees of the ICON selected. You may pan, tilt and zoom the image by mouse or clicking the controls at the bottom of the map. Clicking dispalys a Google map indicating your current position with a green pin and an overlay showing its field of view. Red pins identify alternate points of view available within the current imagery set, which are selectable: Click to hide the controls and in the lower left-hand corner of the viewport to restore them.

Lake Havasu Unified School District, Lake Havasu

Solar Photovoltaic Project Development Advocacy

City of Sedona, Sedona

3rd Party Solar Power Purchase Audit & Mitigation Advocacy

Sedona Red Rock News Solar Sttlement Article

Settlement: Sun Edison Pays 375K to City

Casa Grande Union High School District, Casa Grande

3rd Party Solar Power Purchase Audit & Mitigation Advocacy

Casa Grande Dispatch Solar Sttlement Article

CGUHSD to get $250K rebate on solar panels




City of Sedona - SunEdison Solar Settlement Article

City, firm settle $375K lawsuit


Late last year the city of Sedona filed a lawsuit against a company seeking damages for breach of contract. This week it was settled.

An agreement was reached between the city against the Delaware-based Sun Edison Government Solutions for $375,000.

However, according to court documents, “It is understood and agreed that payment of the settlement funds shall not be construed as an admission of liability on the part of Sun Edison.”

The Sedona City Council approved the settlement agreement on Tuesday, April 25. The item was on the consent agenda and was approved without any discussion by council. The issue had been discussed by council prior to Tuesday’s meeting and on early occasions in executive session. The information discussed in executive session is not made public.

“I’m pleased that very costly and protracted litigation has been avoided through an amicable resolution,” City Attorney Robert Pickels said of the agreement. “With this settlement, we are able to put this matter behind us and focus on other matters that are important to the community.”

Pickels added that since utility costs associated with the solar project are all related to the wastewater treatment facility, the settlement funds will ultimately be credited back to the wastewater program budget.

In 2011, the city of Sedona solicited proposals for the construction/installation of a solar photovoltaic electric generating system and power purchase agreement.

Sun Edison was the successful bidder and was awarded a contract pursuant to the Request for Proposals, a city report states. Although it was represented by Sun Edison that the city would realize significant savings as a result of the construction and deployment of the system, the city actually experienced higher electricity costs than it otherwise would have under a traditional service through
Arizona Public Service.

The report added that failed attempts to recover the difference in cost between what the city expected and what it ultimately realized led to the filing of a lawsuit by the city against the various Sun Edison entities involved in preparation of the RFP.

The court document states that because of potential expenses and uncertain outcome of any litigation, both sides felt it was best to enter into this agreement.

“Each party acknowledges that this agreement is the product of a compromise and settlement of disputed claims,” it states.

Casa Grande Union High School Solar Settlement Article

CASA GRANDE — Casa Grande Union High School District officials say a settlement with a company that installed solar panels has been reached.

According to the terms of the agreement, the district will receive a one-time rebate of $250,000 from Constellation Solar LLC. Constellation also agreed to pay the district $50,000 per year for the remainder of the life of the contract. The original contract was for 20 years.

The dispute started when the district began to see higher costs for electricity than it planned on after solar panels were installed at the district office, 1362 N. Casa Grande Ave., and other locations in the district. The district maintains it realized an “increase in its overall energy costs” because a feasibility study done prior to installation was flawed, according to the agreement.

In early 2012, the district entered into an agreement with Constellation to install the panels after a feasibility study was conducted, and the panels began working on Dec. 19, 2012.

Constellation maintains the panels work correctly. CGUHSD, for its part, stopped paying bills to Constellation while the matter was being resolved. Under the terms of the agreement, the district will pay all back payments and will continue to made good on its bills going forward.

“It’s a win-win. It’s a win for Constellation because they get an accurate contract and it’s a win for the school district because it will accurately reflect our usage,” said CGUHSD Superintendent Shannon Goodsell.

Goodsell added that the district will begin to realize the savings it had originally thought it would receive. Goodsell wasn’t the superintendent at the time the contract was negotiated.

The agreement also says that neither the district nor Constellation will admit to wrongdoing.

The CGUHSD Governing Board will vote on formal acceptance of the agreement at its April meeting.